“Tafl” is a Norse word for Board

The Game.

There are two sides.

The attackers arranged in groups of 6 at each side of the board, making a total of 24 and the defenders are arranged around the king in the centre of the board. The king is on the central refuge square.


The aim of the attackers is to capture the king.

The aim of the defenders is to help get the king to a refuge square at/in the Corner/s of the board.


Moves are the same for all pieces.

A piece may move horizontally or vertically but not diagonally.

The piece may move one or more squares, until it is stopped by the presence of another piece, a refuge square or the edge of the board. The central square is the starting square for the king’s fifth refuge square. No other piece may rest on this square but they may cross it if there is no other piece obstructing the other side of that square.


Starting: - The attackers have the first move.


Taking: - is by sandwiching an opponent piece horizontally or vertically between two of your own. This squashing process is referred to as “the hammer and anvil”. Pieces cannot be squashed diagonally.

A piece can move between two opposing pieces into a sandwiched position and is then not taken. The opponent has to move a piece away and then carry out the hammer manoeuvre to take the piece.

It is possible to move a piece so that it causes more than one opposing piece to be squashed. In this case more than one opposing piece has been taken.

The maximum number of pieces it is possible to take in one move is three.

A piece may be positioned where one move by the opponent would capture it but the player on move need not take that piece.

Taking is also possible by squashing an opposing piece between one of your pieces and a refuge square. The refuge square is then the anvil.

It may be that the king is on the central refuge square in which case only an attacking piece may be taken using it as the anvil until the king has moved away.

If the king has left the central square then either attacker or defender may be squashed against that square and so taken.

Any piece that has been taken should be removed immediately from the board.

Taking the king is by surrounding him on all four sides.

If the king is at the side of the board it cannot be taken. The attackers must force the king from the edge of the board in order to surround him and take him.

 It is permitted to capture the king on the central refuge square. (I.e. one attacks warrior on each of the four sides.)


Drawn Games

If the same position is reached on three separate occasions with the same player to move the game can be adjudicated a draw.

If a player is unable to make a legal move when it is their go then the game is drawn.


The name “HAG STONE” originates in part from ancient beliefs that most maladies, which were curable by using this stone, were caused originally by spectral hags.

Hag Stones can be any type of stone as long as they possess a natural hole through it and if in your possession, should be considered a sacred object. They have been called by many names over the centuries including Witch Stones, Adder Stones, Snake Eggs, Hex Stones, Fairy Stones, Holy Stones, Holeys, Odin Stone.

They are said to be powerful protection amulets & talismans and when worn or carried protect the bearer from curses, hexes, negative spirits. They can be hung up to prevent nightmares.

It is believed that if you peer through the hole you can see into the realm of fae folk and otherworldly creatures.

Livestock owners would use the stones to protect their animals from bewitchment or being ridden to the Sabbath by witches.

A stone would be suspended by a cord in the centre of each stable to protect the horses and other live stock.

Fisherman and sailors would often tie them to their boats to keep off evil spirits or witches from affecting their ships and their catch.  It was believed that evil spirits and witches would curse ships to have small catches.

It was common to see these stone baubles hanging above the doors of people's houses, for Hag stones were believed to have protective properties from the powerful effects of evil. It was customary to hang a hag stone on a nail (especially if it was made of iron as this increased the stones power) above the door. Often found too on window sills and used as keyrings.

Traditionally used during Samhain or Halloween for protection & boost luck

 Hanging more than one on red cord would also boost their powers.

If a hag stone breaks it is thought to have used its power and protected  life.



The runic alphabet is an old Germanic literary language, which were used in all of Northern Europe. In addition runes have always had a magic & prophetic meaning. Runes also have an important role in making prophecies. As charms they can be used for protection, healing, communication and more.

Whether you buy your runes or carve them yourself is less important than your sincere desire to understand the messages conveyed to you via this alphabet of enlightenment. Your intentions will have a direct impact on the wisdom you receive while casting. The runes are representative of forces outside of the realm of human understanding, so your intent will act as your anchor. By simply reading the runes, you will find illumination in the unlimited possibilities laid out before you in each new cast.

There are many casting styles, each of which serves an individual function. Casting a single rune can help you answer specific questions or choose a daily meditation subject. Three runes, cast during confusing or distressing situations, provide you with insights into the past, present, and future-as represented by the first, second, and third runes cast, respectively. Thor’s cross is a five rune cast in an equal armed cross. Bottom – influences around you, left hand - obstacles, Top – forces in your favour, Right hand- short term consequences, and Centre- long term outcome.   A nine-rune cast can help you understand where you are on your spiritual path. (Not basic level)

*The runes that land face up relate to your current circumstances and the events leading up to them, and any runes touching are read as concurrences. Rune readings, however, are by their very nature subjective and open to interpretation.

What is the best way to use your runes? That is up to you. Here are some common methods of using runes:

Method #1: With your runes in their pouch close your eyes, concentrate on what you want an answer for (past situation, present situation or future situation) and chose a rune from the bag as your answer.

Method #2: Gently toss the runes from the bag onto a soft surface and the runes while thinking of what you want an answer for (past situation, present situation or future situation) and the rune(s) that stand out the most to you is your answer.

Method #3: Lay the runes out in grid and let your hand pass over the runes slowly while concentrating on what you want an answer for (past situation, present situation or future situation). Use your left hand if you are right-handed and your right hand if you are left-handed. You will sense the rune that holds the answer to your question.

Method #4: With your eyes closed and while in a neutral state of mind draw three runs from the bag and line them up. The first rune is an answer to a past situation, the second one is an answer to a present situation and the last is an answer to a future situation. upside down may mean the opposite or reverse.

Keep your runes in their dark bag when not in use. Try to have only one person touch them each time they are used: - this will keep them balanced and focused. To cleanse wash in a salt water solution. To further boost and energise leave in moonlight.

drop spindle

HOW TO USE A VIKING AGE DROP SPINDLE Follow the diagram to correctly load your pre-spun wool to the drop-spindle. The first time you use it you will need to load it with a piece of wool from an existing ball of yarn. Now splay out the ends of your yarn at the top of the spindle & select a section of carded fleece. Placing the fluffy fibres on top of the splayed ends of your yarn pinch them together with forefinger and thumb of your left hand .With your right hand spin the whirl of your spindle in one direction .This will twist the ends of the fibres together .Do not drop the spindle. Now pinch and pull the next length of unspun wool with left hand whilst repeating the spinning motion with your right hand. Do not allow the spindle to rotate backwards as this will undo the spinning. Repeat the process allowing the lengthening string to dangle the spindle in front of you as you progress. BACKINTHEDAYREENACTMENTFURNITURE.COM HOW TO USE A VIKING AGE DROP SPINDLE Part 2 When the yarn becomes long enough for the spindle to rest on the ground unwind it and the wind the spun yarn around the centre of the drop spindle .Leaving enough thread free to re thread the spindle and continue to spin. (Above) Soon you will create a length of wool yarn ready to be dyed and or used to make cord you can use a Lucet or to be knitted and or woven using a loom . Lucet Osberg Loom Basic drop spindle teaching video: Basic Lucet fork teaching video: More information can be found on you tube and other internet sites.

A simple guide to using a smudge sticks (SAGE HERBS)

The use of dried white sage is a 2000 year old Indigenous practice. The shamans used dried sage plants on their fires as a ritual of calling upon ancestral spirits. Any conflict, anger, illness or evil was absorbed by the sage smoke to be released or cleansed from the energy field of a person and place. This ancient shamanic ritual is a simple one to incorporate into your daily or weekly routine, or any time you feel like you might need a little aura polishing. You can never really smudge too much!

Some suggestion times to sage smudge your aura and/or space would be:

  • When you move into a new living space
  • When you begin a new job or start your own business
  • Before and after a guest enters your home
  • Before and after a yoga or healing session
  • Before meditation
  • After an argument or any illness
  • Upon returning home from crowded situations

 Here is a simple 3-step sage smudging ritual to try:

  1. Use loose dried white sage or a white ceremonial sage bundle (aka wand), which is usually bound together by a thin string. You can buy them or, if you have a sage plant, you can make your own — just bundle and tie it, and then hang upside down in cool dark space until it is completely dried out.
  2. 2. Next, place it on any heat-proof burning surface like a saucer. Light the bundle by holding a flame to it until it begins to smoke. If a true flame appears, shake the bundle gently or blow until it is just embers and smoke. I often find that I have to re-light my sage bundle a few times during the ritual process.
  3. Once you have a nice smoke going, use you hand or a feather to direct the smoke over your body from your feet up to your head, and then back down again. As you do this, visualize the smoke taking away with it any negative energy from your life, any darkness or malady.

If you feel comfortable with this incantation, repeat the following:

"Air, Fire, Water, Earth- Cleanse, Dismiss, Dispel."

Smudging Page 2

The sage ceremony lifts the veil between the everyday and the sacred. As you say your incantation, you are shifting energy at will.

Once you have smudged your body, begin to move through your space. Wave the smoke into all corners, across doorways and into shadow spaces. To maintain the atmosphere of ritual, keep repeating the incantation in your mind as you diffuse the smoke.

Once the space is cleared, allow the sage bundle to either burn out or gently press it out in your heat-proof shell or container. You can even bury the remaining smudge in your garden to really feel the completeness of the cleansing ritual. Once buried, the sage has done its work in completing the elemental cycle. Ideally, you should try to use a new smudge for each cleansing.

White Sage (Salvia Apiana) is a wonderful plant for cooking, medicinal use, and smudging.